Sunday, July 31, 2011

ALBERT EINSTEIN'S ZIONISM The Movement to Resurrect the Jewish Homeland as seen through the eyes of its most exceptional advocate

A year-by-year account of Einstein's take on ideas and events as they shaped the Zionist struggle

An Internet Project By

Daniel S. Cutler

All Einstein writings © Estate of Albert Einstein


Before Zionism

1879-1899

1900-1909

1910-1919

1920-1929

1930-1939

1940-1949

1950-1955

Einstein in America - The Rise of Nazism - The White Paper

"We Must Strive For a Just and Lasting Compromise with the Arab People Despite the Great Wrong That Has Been Done Us "


1930

PALESTINE:

1930 Young Zionists draining Hula Swamp

.Einstein: "When one travels through the country, as I had the good fortune to do a few years ago, and sees young pioneers, men and women of magnificent intellectual and moral calibre, breaking stones and building roads under the blazing rays of the Palestinian sun; when one sees flourishing agricultural settlement, shooting up from the long-deserted soil under the intensive efforts of the Jewish settlers...what observer, whatever his origin or faith, can fail to be seized by the magic of such amazing achievement and of such almost superhuman devotion?" 1929 Letter to Manchester Guardian

1930
Arab protest against Jewish immigration

March 31

British investigate previous year's riots, recommend actions
On March 31, 1930 Britain's Shaw Commission issues its report on the 1929 anti-Jewish riots by Palestinian Arabs.

Left: Sir Walther Shaw, Right: Sir John Hope-Simpson
Shaw investigated the 1929 riots, Hope-Simpson made recommendations

Conclusion of Shaw Report: "racial animosity on the part of the Arabs, consequent upon the disappointment of their political and national aspirations and fear for their economic future."

Discontent fueled by the rise of a landless class of Arab peasants, widespread Arab fear that continued Jewish immigration would result in a Jewish-dominated Palestine.

Recommendations: British obligations to the Arab community should be more precisely defined, Jewish immigration should be brought directly under British control, cease evicting Arab tenants following land transfers.

Hope-Simpson: Suspend Jewish immigration until new agricultural methods make absorption of immigrants less burdensome on Arab peasants

Jewish leaders respond:
Hope-Simpson ignores capacity for growth in the industrial sector. (Hope-Simpson saw no future for industry in Palestine.) Also, since Zionist ethic requires self-labor, blocking Jewish immigration won't effect Arab labor

GERMANY:

January
Einstein writes to a Palestinian Arab newspaper:

Einstein: Arabs Stand Only to Gain from Zionism

One who, like myself, has cherished for many years the conviction that the humanity of the future must be built up on an intimate community of the nations, and that aggressive nationalism must be conquered, can see a future for Palestine only on the basis of peaceful cooperation between the two peoples who are at home in the country. For this reason I should have expected that the great Arab people will show a truer appreciation of the need which the Jews feel to rebuild their national home in the ancient seat of Judaism; I should have expected that by common effort ways and means would be found to render possible an extensive Jewish settlement in the country.

I am convinced that the devotion of the Jewish people to Palestine will benefit all the inhabitants of the country, not only materially, but also culturally and nationally. I believe that the Arab renaissance in the vast expanse of territory now occupied by the Arabs stands only to gain from Jewish sympathy. I should welcome the creation of an opportunity for absolutely free and frank discussion of these possibilities, for I believe that the two great Semitic peoples, each of which has in its way contributed something of lasting value to the civilisation of the West, may have a great future in common, and that instead of facing each other with barren enmity and mutual distrust, they should support each other's national and cultural endeavours, and should seek the possibility of sympathetic co-operation. I think that those who are not actively engaged in politics should above all contribute to the creation of this atmosphere of confidence.

I deplore the tragic events of last August not only because they revealed human nature in its lowest aspects, but also because they have estranged the two peoples and have made it temporarily more difficult for them to approach one another. But come together they must, in spite of all

from a January 28, 1930 letter to Falastin newspaper reproduced as "Jew and Arab, section III", in Einstein, About Zionism, MacMillan (1931)

January 29, 1930

Einstein plays violin at a Welfare Concert for the Youth Department of the Jewish Community
Berlin's Neue Synagoge located at 30 Oranienburger Strasse. The program includes arias sung by tenor Hermann Jadlowker and the Adagio in B-minor for two violins by Johann Sebastian Bach, played by Einstein and the violist Alfred Lewandowski.

Einstein was seen in a kippah only very occasionally when attending a lecture or charity event at a synagogue, such as the public concert in which he performed with opera singer Hermann Jadlowker at the New Synagogue of Berlin (January 29, 1930) to benefit the Jewish Welfare and Jewish Youth Welfare Offices. Photo: (© Underwood & Underwood/CORBIS)

As much as I feel myself to be a Jew, I stand aloof from the traditional religious rites

Letter to the Jewish Community of Berlin Dec. 22, 1920 cited in Jurgen Neffe pg 317

 

Einstein's Plan for a Binational State

Sir: Your letter has given me great pleasure. It shows me that there is good will on your side, too, for solving the present difficulties in a manner worthy of both our nations...

What makes the present position so bad is that Jews and Arabs confront each other as opponents before the mandatory power. This state of affairs is unworthy of both nations...

I will now tell you how I think the present difficulties might be remedied...

A privy council is to be formed to which the Jews and Arabs shall each send four representatives, who must be independent of all political parties:--

Each group to be composed as follows:--

A doctor, elected by the Medical Association

A lawyer, elected by the lawyers.

A working men's representative, elected by the trade unions.

An ecclesiastic, elected by the ecclesiastics.

These eight people are to meet once a week. They undertake not to espouse the sectional interests of their profession or nation but conscientiously and to the best of their power to aim at the welfare of the country. Their deliberations shall be secret and they are strictly forbidden to give any information about them, even in private. When a decision has been reached in any subject in which not less than three members on each side concur, it may be published, but only in the name of the whole Council. If a member dissents he may retire from the Council., but he is not thereby released from the obligation to secrecy. I one of the elective bodies above specified is dissatisfied with a resolution of the Council, it may replace its representative with another.

Even if this "Privy Council" has no definite powers, it may nevertheless bring about the gradual composition of differences, and secure a united representation of the common interests of the country before the mandatory power, clear of the dust of ephemeral politics.

1930 March 15 correspondence reproduced as "Letter to an Arab" from Mein Weltbild in Einstein, Albert, Ideas and Opinions Crown (1954) pg172-174

Einstein: Substance, not Quantity
of Zionist Effort is Key

It does not matter how many Jews are in Palestine but it does matter what they produce there. That should be something the Jews of the whole world can point to as ideal creative work and with which they can identify themselves.

September 1930 address to the First International Congress of Palestine Workers, held in Berlin

ENGLAND:

September

Selections from Einstein's Zionist speeches collected, published
and letters are collected for publication by Macmillan Company. Sir Leon Simon translates into English and writes the introduction. (Sir Leon also translated Plato into Hebrew, Ahad Ha'am into English and even had a hand in drafting the Balfour Declaration link, )

 

October

White Paper by Sidney Webb (as Lord Passfield), the new Colonial Secretary.
Acting on the Shaw Commission recommendations and Hope-Simpson findings

Jewish emigration cut, land purchases restricted.
Protests in US rejuvenate US Zionist movement.

Lord Passfield and his "White Paper"

December 1930

Einstein sets sail back to US for first trip to West
Heading back to Caltech (Californai Institute of Technology in Pasedena, California) via Panama Canal with stop in New York. Come spring he will return to his duties in Berlin.

Einstein blasts new British restrictions on Jewish immigration to Palestine
while returning to US aboard the SS Belgenland
Left: SS Belgenland, Right: Einsteins arrive in New York

At sea, Einstein learns of new British "White Paper" closing Palestine to Jewish immigration:
Einstein slams British change in interview with shipboard reporters:

Jewish National Home an "Absolute Necessity"

We Jews are everywhere subject to attacks and humiliations that result from the exaggeration of nationalism and racial vanity, which, in most European countries, expresses itself in the form of aggressive anti-Semitism.

The Jewish national home is not a luxury but an absolute necessity for the Jewish people. Therefore the reply of the Jews to the present difficulties must be a determination to redouble their efforts in Palestine

NYT Dec 3, 1930 Cited in Denis Brian pg 202-203

USA:

Arrives in New York for five days:
He tells a New York pacifist group. "If only 2% refused to fight,", governments would be powerless to make war.
Addresses Hanukkah mass rally in Madison Garden.

Journalist George Sylvester Viereck interviews Einstein
"Glimpses of the Great", Saturday Evening Post: October, 26th 1929. The Curtis Publishing Company, Reconstructed by Denis Brian
(Viereck  was a fascinating character, a philo-semitic essayist and poet who became a propagandist for the Third Reich.)

Einstein said of Viereck: "When I met you, I knew I could talk to you freely without he inhibitions which make the contact with others so difficult. I look upon you not as a German nor as an American, but as a Jew."
Tom Reiss, The First Conservative, The New Yorker, Oct 24, 2005 pg. 42.

John-Alexis Viereck Interviews Einstein
reconstructed by Denis Brian

Nationalism is an infantile disease, the measles of mankind.

Then how do you justify your Jewish nationalism?

I support Zionism although it is a national experiment, because it gives Jews a common interest. This nationalism is no threat to other peoples. Zion is too small to develop imperialistic designs.

You don't believe in assimilation?

We Jews have been too eager to sacrifice our idiosyncrasies to conform. Other groups and nations cultivate their individual traditions. Why should we sacrifice ours? To deprive every ethnic group of its special traditions is to convert the world into a huge Ford plant. I believe in standardizing automobiles, but not human beings.

Denis Brian pg185-186

1930 A stop at the Grand Canyon

Einstein addresses college Zionists
At request of Zelig Harris, future husband of his future assistant Bruria Kaufman, Einstein broadcasts speech to the young Zionists group Avukah (Torch) ["We were generally allied on campus issues with the anti-Stalinist Left" -former editor of Avukah student newspaper) . Harris founded the first US university linguistics department, at University of Pennsylvania.

 

This is essentially Einstein's opinion, too (for instance) until he is forced to abandon the hope that a binational state could work.

Zelig Harris and Bruria Kaufman will be among Einstein's Zionist co-signers of a scathing denunciation of Menachem Begin's bid for political legitimacy following Israel's independence. link

Einstein to Zionist Youth: We Must Benefit Arabs, Too

Undoubtedly certain statements and measures, taken and pronounced by British officials [restricting Jewish immigration to Palestine] have been just subject for criticism. We can not, however, be satisfied with this, but we must learn the lesson of what has recently happened. In the first place, we must pay great attention to our relations with the Arab people. By cultivating these relations we shall be able to avoid a development in the future of those dangerous tensions, which can be exploited for the purpose of provoking hostile action against us. We can very well attain this end, because our upbuilding of Palestine has been so conducted and must be so conducted that it also serves the real interests of the Arab population…..”

Radio broadcast to Avukah (a collegiate Zionist group) cited by
“Inside Albert Einstein’s Zionist Brain,” by Robert Barsky(Talk given at a Faculty Seminar, Tuesday, March 23, 2004 link

December 30

Arrives San Diego
Hosted by Robert Millikan, he views Mt. Wilson Observatory telescopes with Edwin Hubble and Richard Tolman. Einstein announces he's abandoning his "cosmological constant" [an attachment to the General Theory of Relativity that predicts light accelerates at the edges of the universe. Despite Einstein's frustration that its pursuit had been a blind alley, the phenomenon has since been observed at the outermost galaxies] (Parker pg. 230).

Einstein lunches with Charlie Chaplin - at Einstein's request.
Einstein subsequently accompanies him at premier of City Lights.

1931 With Charlie Chaplin at opening of City Lights

1931

Einstein in 1931

GERMANY (WEIMAR REPUBLIC):

March

Einstein returns to Germany from California
Nazi threat worsening. After lectures in England Einstein returns to Germany. Spends time mostly at vacation home in Caputh. Supports many pacifist and human rights causes, some of which are Communist fronts. He gets labeled Communist, and later insists he is not:

[I] would like to state that I have never favored communism and do not favor it now.

(Brian, Einstein: A Life pg 249 )

Einstein Co-Signs Protest Against
Soviet Suppression of Hebrew Language

We, European intellectuals, friends and supporters of every means which could lead away from capitalist economic chaos and its catastrophes of bloody wars, desire by our signatures to make the Russian Government take note that, concerning the Hebrew language and its persecution, we can neither approve the stand of the Jewish Section; nor understand why the Government should consider itself bound insolubly to this section of the communist party. The Jewish people cannot and will never renounce the revival of its great cultural legacy-one of the greatest languages- which has been given to Human Spirit imperishable values, and, further, continues to give them in the form of modern Hebrew poetry and philosophy.

Besides Einstein, signers include writers Selma Lagerlof, Thomas Mann, Stefan Zwieg, Franz Werfel and Arnold Zweig, pianist Arthur Schnable, painter Max Liebermann, and French statesman Edouard Herriot.

From the archives of Jacob Klatzkin link
in 1935 Einstein will write a forward to Zionist philosopher Klatzin's pamphlet Die Judenfrage der Gegenwart.

Spring

Norman Bentwich visits Einstein in Berlin,
On his way back to England after resigning as Attorney-General for Palestine - having found the position impossible in the wake of the riots, Bentwich stops to see Einstein in Berlin. They had met during Einstein's 1923 tour of Palestine; Einstein played violin in a Mozart quintet at Bentwich's Jerusalem home. (Bentwich would retire from Civil Service soon after and return to Palestine to take a Professorship at Hebrew University). Recalling his Berlin visit Bentwich later recorded

[The] conviction was expressed emphatically by Albert Einstein... He would not remain associated, he said, with the Zionist movement unless it tried to make peace with the Arabs in deed as well as in word. The Jews should form committees with the Arab peasants and workers, and not try to negotiate only with the leaders.
Ronald W. Clark, Einstein: The Life and Times, World Publishing (1971) pg. 397

Norman Bentwich (1938 photo)
Former British Attorney General for Mandatory Palestine played string quartets with Einstein during Einstein's 1923 tour of Zionist accomplishments.

PALESTINE:

February
British reverse White Paper restrictions. Jews again permitted to emigrate, buy land in Palestine
Letter from PM Ramsey MacDonald to Chaim Weizmann (the "Black Letter" per Arabs) reverses former policy.

Irgun splits from Haganah. Dissident militia initially called Haganah 'B'
Seeking a more decisive use of force to forestall Arab attacks by assuring punishing reprisals, and to force British out of Palestine, the Haganah commander of Jerusalem breaks from the mainstream Jewish militia. The new combat organization also want a non-socialist alternative to mainstream Zionism.

April,1931 , Avraham Tehomi founds Irgun Tzvai Leumi (National Military Organization) . He had been active in Odessa Jewish Self Defense against pogroms and was dissatisfied with the official policy of 'restraint'.

December

Mufti holds World Islamic Conference in Jerusalem
He distributes obviously faked photos of Jews attacking the Dome of the Rock with machine guns. The forgeries are rejected by attendees, some of whom protest the Mufti.

1931: Pan Islamic Conference-Jerusalem
Called by the Mufti to strengthen Muslim claims on Jerusalem

1931: Pan Islamic Conference-Jerusalem
caption coming

1931: Pan Islamic Conference, Jerusalem
caption coming

Louis French Report
British development director publishes report on Palestinian Arabs who lost their land

USA:

December 1931- March 1932

Einstein returns to US for second trip to California
There in February he is introduced to Abraham Flexner who outlines his project for a new research institute in New Jersey

Einstein: Zionism's foremost challenge is a " just solution to Arab-Jewish conflict"

Einstein: Splendid successful constructive work
by united energies of the Jewish people

We have also successfully stood the severe test to which the events of the last few years have subjected us. Ceaseless work, supported by a noble purpose, is leading slowly but surely to success. The latest pronouncements of the British government indicate a return to a just judgment of our case...

Ten years ago, when I first had the pleasure of addressing you on behalf of the Zionist cause, almost all of our hopes were still fixed on the future. Today we can look back on these ten years with joy; for in that time the united energies of the Jewish people have accomplished a piece of splendidly successful constructive work in Palestine, which certainly exceeds anything we dared then to hope for.


Still, a just solution to Arab-Jewish conflict
is Zionism's foremost challenge

But we must never forget what this crisis has taught us -- namely, that the establishment of satisfactory relations between Jews and the Arabs is not England's affair, but our's.  We -- that is to say, the Arabs and ourselves--have got to agree on the main outlines of an advantageous partnership which shall satisfy the needs of both nations. A just solution of this problem and one worthy of both nations is an end no less worthy of our efforts than the promotion of the work of reconstruction itself.

speech published in 1934 in Mien Weltbild reproduced as Addresses on Reconstruction in Palestine I in Einstein, Albert, Ideas and Opinions Crown (1954) pg 176-177


That same year:

It is for us to solve the problem of living side by side with our brother the Arab

A decade or two ago a group of far-sighted men, among whom the unforgettable Herzl stood out above the rest, came to the conclusion that we needed a spiritual center in order to preserve our sense of solidarity in difficult times. Thus arose the idea of Zionism and the work of settlement in Palestine, the successful realization of which we have been permitted to witness, at least in its highly promising beginnings.

I have had the privilege of seeing, to my great joy and satisfaction, how much this achievement has contributed to the convalescence of the Jewish people; for the Jews are exposed, as a minority among the nations, not merely to external danger, but also to internal ones of a psychological nature.

The crisis which the work of construction has had to face in the last few years has lain heavy upon us and is not yet completely surmounted. But most recent reports show that the world, and especially the British government, is disposed to recognize the great things which lie behind our struggle for the Zionist ideal...

The crisis has also purified our attitude to the question of Palestine, purged it of the dross of nationalism. It has been clearly proclaimed that we are not seeking to create a political society, but that our aim is, in accordance with the old tradition of Jewry, a cultural one in the widest sense of the world. That being so, it is for us to solve the problem of living side by side with our brother the Arab in an open, generous, and worthy manner. We have here an opportunity of showing what we have learned in the thousands of years of our martyrdom. If we chose the right path, we shall succeed and give the rest of the world a fine example.

Whatever we do for Palestine, we do it for the honor and well-being of the whole Jewish people.

speech published in 1934 in Mien Weltbild reproduced as Addresses on Reconstruction in Palestine II in Einstein, Albert, Ideas and Opinions Crown (1954) pg 177-178


On another occasion that same year he addressed some comments to a gathering of Jewish youth:

Do not be discouraged by the difficulties which confront us in Palestine. Such things serve to test the will to live of our community.

Certain proceedings and pronouncements of the English administration have been justly criticized. We must not, however, let the matter rest at that, but draw what lessons we can from the experience.

We need to pay great attention to our relations with the Arabs. By cultivating these carefully we shall be able in the future to prevent things from becoming so dangerously strained that people can take advantage of them to provoke acts of hostility. This goal is perfectly within our reach, because our work of construction has been, and must continue to be, carried out in such a manner as to safeguard the real interests of the Arab population also.

speech published in 1934 in Mien Weltbild reproduced as Addresses on Reconstruction in Palestine III in Einstein, Albert, Ideas and Opinions Crown (1954) pg 178-179

Our Palestine struggle is for Jews everywhere
not just those who settle in the homeland

A decade or two ago a group of far-sighted me, among whom the unforgettable Herzl stood out above the rest, came to the conclusion that we needed a spiritual center in order to preserve our sense of solidarity in difficult times. Thus arose the idea of Zionism and the work of settlement in Palestine, the successful realization of which we have been permitted to witness, at least in its highly promising beginnings.

I have had the privilege of seeing, to my great joy and satisfaction, how much this achievement has contributed to the convalescence of the Jewish people; for the Jews are exposed, as a minority among the nations, not merely to external danger, but also to internal ones of a psychological nature.

The crisis which the work of construction has had to face in the last few years has lain heavy upon us and is not yet completely surmounted. But most recent reports show that the world, and especially the British government, is disposed to recognize the great things which lie behind our struggle for the Zionist ideal...

The crisis has also purified our attitude to the question of Palestine, purged it of the dross of nationalism. It has been clearly proclaimed that we are not seeking to create a political society, but that our aim is, in accordance with the old tradition of Jewry, a cultural one in the widest sense of the world. That being so, it is for us to solve the problem of living side by side with our brother the Arab in an open, generous, and worthy manner. We have here an opportunity of showing what we have learned in the thousands of years of our martyrdom. If we chose the right path, we shall succeed and give the rest of the world a fine example.

Whatever we do for Palestine, we do it for the honor and well-being of the whole Jewish people.

speech published in 1934 in Mien Weltbild reproduced as Addresses on Reconstruction in Palestine II in Einstein, Albert, Ideas and Opinions Crown (1954) pg 177-178


On another occasion that same year he addressed some comments to a gathering of Jewish youth:

The difficulties test our will
But good relations with Arabs are within reach

Do not be discouraged by the difficulties which confront us in Palestine. Such things serve to test the will to live of our community.

Certain proceedings and pronouncements of the English administration have been justly criticized. We must not, however, let the matter rest at that, but draw what lessons we can from the experience.

We need to pay great attention to our relations with the Arabs. By cultivating these carefully we shall be able in the future to prevent things from becoming so dangerously strained that people can take advantage of them to provoke acts of hostility. This goal is perfectly within our reach, because our work of construction has been, and must continue to be, carried out in such a manner as to safeguard the real interests of the Arab population also.

speech published in 1934 in Mien Weltbild reproduced as Addresses on Reconstruction in Palestine III in Einstein, Albert, Ideas and Opinions Crown (1954) pg 178-179


An appeal to the Jews of Hungary on behalf of Keren HaYesod.

Zionism will unite, normalize Jews and make all proud

Palestine will be a center of culture for all Jews, a refuge for the most grievously oppressed, a field of action for the best among us, a unifying ideal, and a means of attaining health for the Jews of the whole world.

speech published in 1934 in Mein Weltbild reproduced as Jewish Recovery in Einstein, Albert, Ideas and Opinions Crown (1954) pg 184

BASLE, SWITZERLAND:

17th Zionist Congress: anti-British feeling leads Chaim Weizmann to resign.
But Zionists reject Jabotinsky's call for a Jewish State on both sides of Jordan

Ze'ev Jabotinsky tears up his World Zionist Organization membership card after 17th Zionist Congress rejects his demand that the British honor original mandate terms of "look[ing] favourably" on a Jewish homeland in Palestine - (both sides of the Jordan River) and that the Zionist Movement immediately declare political independence in entire area.

Einstein endorses Poalei Tzion :

Arab, Jewish workers best hope
Good Relations with Arabs is Zionism's Chief Task

Among Zionist organizations "Working Palestine" is the one whose work is ...transforming deserts into flourishing settlements by the labor of their hands...They are ...educated, intellectually vigorous free men from whose peaceful struggle with a neglected soil the whole Jewish nation are the gainers...

It is, moreover, this working class alone that has the power to establish healthy relations with the Arabs, which is the most important political task of Zionism... Therefore, to support Working Palestine is...to promote a humane and worthy policy in Palestine.

speech published in 1934 in Mein Weltbild reproduced as Addresses on Reconstruction in Palestine I in Einstein, Albert, Ideas and Opinions Crown (1954) pg 176-177

PALESTINE:

Arab and Jewish workers stand together in strike against British government employer
As if to underscore Einstein's assertion that Jewish and Arab workers could best reconcile, truck drivers successful strike against British motor tax (imposed on private owner-operators in order to protect government rail monopoly). Other joint strikes: petroleum industry, cigarette factories, bakeries, postal service and railways. Histadrut incorporates Arab workers into its Arab division.

The hand of [the Mufti] was visible."  [ Ilan Pappe, A Histoy of Modern Palestine: One Land, Two Peoples Brit Po'alei Eretz Yisrael(2004) pg 114

1931
Rageb Nashashibi
Mayor of Jerusalem (1920-1934) lifetime opponent of the al-Husseini clan. In 1934 he started Hizb al Difa al Watani National Defense Party

1931
Adel Zu'aiter founds Mu'aridun (Opposition) Party, opposing al-Husseini family  and favoring Nashashabi clan

.

They set up formal political parties, reflecting family-clan and regional loyalties rather than ideological differences
1932 Istaqlal Party (pan-Arab)
1935 Al Hizb al Arabi al Falistini Palestine Political Parrty (Husseini)
Also, Christian-Muslim divide

1932

GERMANY (WEIMAR REPUBLIC)

Youth Aliya Organization founded
Later nominated by Einstein for a Nobel Peace Prize (link), the program resettles and trains Jewish youth in Palestine.

USA:

February
Einstein contributes article to NAACP newspaper, The Crisis

Just as his primary Zionist concern is the inner equalibrium it will afford individual Jews, Einstein sees the African-American struggle as, most importantly, bringing about "emancipation of the soul" of Black people.

Einstein applies his Zionist insight to
US Civil Rights struggle:
"Emancipation of the soul" is goal of both

It seems to be a universal fact that minorities, especially when their individuals are recognizable because of physical differences, are treated by the majorities among whom they live as inferiors. The tragic part of such a fate, however, lies not only in the automatically realized disadvantages suffered by these minorities in economic and social relations, but also in the fact that those who meet such treatment themselves for the most part acquiesce in this prejudiced estimate because of the suggestive influence of the majority, and come to regard people like themselves as inferior.
This second and more important aspect of the evil can be met through closer union and conscious educational enlightenment among the minority, and so an emancipation of the soul of the minority may be attained. The determined effort of the American Negroes in this direction deserves every recognition and assistance.

Letter to NAACP journal,Abraham Pais, Einstein Lived Here, Clarendon Press, Oxford U Press, 1994, pg 186
(Einstein joined the Princeton chapter of NAACP)

ENGLAND:

May 30
While at Oxford Einstein is recruited to Princeton's new Institute for Advanced Studies.
He accepts an offer from the Institutes founder Abraham Flexner.to conduct his own research with no administrative or teaching responsibilities. ("What could be wiser than to give people who can think the leisure in which to do it?" - economist Walther Stewart's 1939 observation to founding director Flexner) Einstein is to begin October 1933. He obtains US visa over objections of The Women's Patriotic Corporation, who denounce him as pacifist and communist.

Flexner believes he "will contrive to manage" Einstein once he arrives at Princeton. Instead, Einstein will help lead a faculty rebellion to oust the overly-controlling Flexner. His replacement, Frank Ayelotte will go on to serve on the joint Anglo-American Committe on Palestine determining policy towards Holocaust refugees' immigration to Palestine. link (George Dyson, Helen Dukas, Einstein's Compass, in My Einstein, John Brockman, editor)
Einstein bids farewell to son Eduard. The boy has been diagnosed schizophrenic.

Einstein with Abraham Flexner, founding director of Princeton's Institute for Advanced Studies, and unidentified woman (1939 photo)
Flexner's brother Bernard was a member of the Zionist delegation to the 1919 Paris Peace Conference.

The Woman Patriot attacks Einstein
Conservative US organization opposes entry visa for Einstein as a security risk, largely because he doesn't support organised religion. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover starts a file on Einstein.

In Los Angelos Einstein says:

Einstein: Zionism Offers Test Case of Jewish Morality

The Zionist goal gives us an actual opportunity to put into practice, through a viable solution to the Jewish-Arab problem, those principles of tolerance and justice that we owe primarily to our prophets. I am convinced that the living transmission of these principle is the most important thing in Judaism.

(Hoffman article pg. 242)

PALESTINE:

Brit Shalom (Covenant of Peace) formed
Its goal: Jewish-Arab coexistence. Led by Dr. Magnes, President of Hebrew University, philosophers Martin Buber and Hugo Bergmann (known to Einstein from his Prague days) and Norman Bentwich, a former attorney General for Mandatory Palestine who entertained Einstein during Einsteins' Palestine tour. Named Professor of International Peace at Hebrew University, Bentwich's first lecture is disrupted by Revisionist right-wing Jewish students shouting, "Go talk peace to the Mufti, not to us."

Judah Magnus, Hebrew U chancellor, peacenik - yet constant irritant to Einstein, for reasons of academic politics

GERMANY:

Month

Nazi party wins stunning election victory
xxxxx

December 10

Einstein: I am for Zionism

I am for Zionism. It is certain that the Jews share a destiny and are in
urgent need of mutual support.

Letter to Eduard Freed July 11, 1932 quoted in Jurgen Neffe, Einstein A Biography Farrar, Straus, Giroux, New York 2005 tranlation 2007 by
S helley Frisch pg.320

Einsteins depart for US
Presumably for a three month visit, but they bring 30 pieces of luggage. Before leaving hoome in Caputh Einsteien tells Elsa, "Look around. You'll never see it again." (Pais, Einstein Lived Here, pg 190)

1933

Einstein in 1933

NAZI GERMANY:

March 23
Hitler consolidates dictatorial powers.

April 1

One week after coming to power Hitler orders a boycott of Jewish shops, banks, offices and department stores.

Good Germans Don't Buy from Jews

Anti-semitic frenzy begins:
Jewish academics dismissed from positions, professionals barred from practicing and hounded into destitution.
(Emergency Committee in Aid of Foreign Scholars is formed in US to assist fired academics. Einstein will become deeply involved with it by the end of the decade. One of it's executives will recruit Einstein to Princeton)

Nazis confiscate Einstein's bank account, house.
SS reportedly plan to hold hostage Einstein's step-daughters Ilse and Margot. Ilse and husband escape to Paris with most of Einstein's papers.

"Not yet hanged"
So reads the caption under Einstein's page one photo in a German magazine cover story of the regime's "top enemies".

Einstein's"Jewish theories" are among the books burned.


Einstein's "Jewish theories" burned,
along with works by other unacceptable authors. Tens of thousands cheer as students toss "degenerate works" into the bonfire.

August

Haavura (Transfer) Agreement: Controversial move saves assets of some German Jews
Jewish Agency negotiates an agreement with new regime's Finance Department. allowing some Jews to emigrate to Palestine with some of their belongings. About 50,000 Jews get to Palestine under the Transfer Agreement. The next year "Youth Aliya" organizes rescue of German-Jewish teens.)

Rabbi Stephen Wise
Einstein's friend, the Zionist leader Stephen Wise was also a cofounder of the NAACP. Wise helped influence Woodrow WIlson to support the Balfour Declaration. When the Nazis came to power he tried to organize a worldwide boycott. It was undercut three months later by the ha'avura (transfer) agreement worked out between the German Nazi finance Department.and the Jewish Agency. link

Nobel prize winning Nazi scientist Phillip Lenard takes anti-Einstein lead

In the leading Nazi newspaper he alerts the general public:

The most important example of the dangerous influence of Jewish circles on the study of nature has been provided by Herr Einstein with his mathematically botched-up theories....Even scientists who have otherwise done solid work cannot escape the reproach that they allowed the relativity theory to gain a foothold in Germany, because they did not see, or did not want to see, how wrong it is, outside the field of science also, to regard this Jew as a good German.

Philipp Frank, Einstein: His Life and Times, Knopf (1947); pg 232

Two years later, inaugurating a new physics institute, Phillip Lenard enlarges on this theme:

I hope that the institute may stand as a battle flag against the Asiatic spirit in science. Our fuehrer has eliminated this same spirit in politics and national economy, however, with the overemphasis on Einstein, it still holds sway. We must recognize that it is unworthy of a German to be the intellectual follower of a Jew. Natural science, properly called, is of completely Aryan origin, and Germans must today also find their own way out into the unknown. Heil Hitler!

Philipp Frank, Einstein: His Life and Times Knopf(1947); pg 232

Eventually in a German High School textbook: German Physics Leonard contributed a forward:

Jewish physics can best and most justly be characterized by recalling the activity of one who is probably its most prominent representative, the pure-blooded Jew Albert Einstein...In contrast to... the Aryan scientist, the Jew lacks to a striking degree any comprehension of truth.

Philipp Frank, Einstein: His Life and Times Knopf (1947); pg 252

Phillip Leonard
Nobel Prize winner high in the Nazi science establishment lobbied hard to keep the Nobel Prize from "the pure-blooded Jew Albert Einstein".

USA:

March 28
Einstein will not return to Berlin
He announces, resigning from Prussian academy, and again renounces his German citizenship.

BELGIUM:

Einstein returns to Europe, avoiding Germany he lands in Belgium.

Wiezmann asks Einstein to take position at Hebrew University. Einstein declines due to ongoing displeasure with Hebrew U administration.

July 20
Einstein renounces pacifism,
shocking his audience. Responding to a calls for him to support Belgian conscientious objectors, Europe's leading pacifist declares

Einstein Renounces Pacifism

I must tell you candidly: Were I a Belgian, I would not, in the present circumstances, refuse military service; rather I would enter such service cheerfully in the belief that I should thereby be helping to save European civilization.

Banesh Hoffman and Helen Dukas Albert Einstein, Creator and Rebel Viking Press/New York (1972) Pg 169-170

Einstein declines a position at Hebrew University
Einstein's ongoing conflict with Hebrew University Chancellor Judah Magnus (over academic politics) leads him to decline an offer from Chaim Weizmann.


PALESTINE:

Within weeks Mufti Amin al-Husseini meets in Jerusalem with Consul-General of the new German government, offering his services to spread nazi ideology to Arab world.

Arab Executive Committee calls for strike against British

October
British forces kill Arab protestors
among the thousands who take to streets of Jaffa in protest against them.

 

Arab nationalist leader Musa Kazim al-Husseini, former Mayor of Jerusalem (center, with beard) beaten by British police.

Arab demonstration against Jewish immigration is violently broken up by British force Near Jerusalem's New Gate, October 13, 1933

A second demonstration in Jaffa leaves 26 Arab demonstrators, one British policeman killed. Jaffa, October 27, 1933

Izz Al-Din Al-Qassam urges jihad
Following massacre, Sheikh Izz Al-Din Al-Qassam, who immigrated from Syria in 1922, organizes urban slum-dwellers and rural peasants into armed force dubbed "Black Hand". He had been preaching strict Islam with a gun or sword in one hand, urging jihad against the Jews and urging his followers to "shoot the Englishmen rather than polish their shoes" His name was taken by HAMAS suicide bombers.
[Kimmerling, Baruch and Migdal, Joel, Palestinian: The Making of a People, The Free Press (1993) pg 62]

Izz al-Din al-Qassam
Syrian Jihadist preacher settled in Haifa, whose name was taken by Hamas suicide bomb squads nearly seventy years later.

Left wing Zionist official assassinated. Motive: Transfer Agreement?
Haim Arlosoroff gunned down on Tel Aviv beach. Revisionist Zionists found guilty


USA:

October 17

Einstein arrives back in New York

Flexnor meets him on behalf of the Institute of Advanced Study. Flexnor warns Einstein that US nazis may try to kill him.

 

1934

PALESTINE:

1934. First "Youth Aliya" group of German Jewish refugee children arrives in Palestine. Einstein raised money for this effort (see below) and nominated the organization for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1954.

ELSWHERE IN MIDDLE EAST:

Arab Nazi political groups spring up
in various places, but not Palestine:
"Young Egypt" is led by Muslim Brotherhood member (and future president) Abdul Gamal Nasser. (Their slogan, directly translated from German: “One Folk, One Party, One Leader”).
Syria's Social Nationalist Party led by Anton Saada, "the Syrian Fuehrer".

USA:

Einstein with reporters Pittsburgh Carnegie Institute of Technology

"Settlement of German Jewish Children in Palestine":
At New York fundraising concert Einstein meets composer Arnold Schoenberg, a fellow German refugee. Einstein pronounces Schoenberg and his music "crazy", not necessarily meant as disparagement. (Brian pg 257)

Born into an orthodox Jewish family in Vienna, Schoenberg converted to Catholicism in 1898 - a common practice among Jews who wanted to advance professionally. In the face of Nazi persecution Schoenberg reconfirm his Judaism in a formal religious ceremony. Like Einstein he worked on behalf of his fellow refugees, and became a Zionist. Poor health kept him from accepting a position as Director of a music academy in Palestine.

Leo Baeck Institute

American Christian Committee for German Refugees after dinner speech
Broadcast over national radio, the dinner raised funds for non-Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany

Einstein: Helping All Victims of Fascism
Shows Solidarity with Humanity

It is well known that German fascism has been particularly violent in its attack on my Jewish brothers...The Jews of all countries have come to the assistance of their impoverished brothers as best they could and have also helped the non-Jewish victims of fascism. But the combined forces of the Jewish community have not nearly sufficed to help all the victims of Nazi terror. Hence, the emergency among the non-Jewish emigrants... -- who are endangered because of their previous political  activities or their refusal to comply with Nazi rules -- is often more serious than that of the Jewish refugees...To help these victims of fascism constitutes an act of humanity...

Abraham Pais, Einstein Lived Here, Clarendon Press, Oxford U Press, 1994 Pg 206-207

Einstein pretends to compose pages on a linotype machine in publicity for The Jewish Daily Worker, NY

1935

NAZI GERMANY:

1935 Hermann Goring proclaims Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor
The "Nuremberg Laws" stripping German Jews of all legal rights.
Steven Speilberg Film and Video Archive, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

POLAND:

May

Death of Polish leader Marshal Joseph Pilsudski. Righwing Polish anti-Semites emboldened.
100s of attacks on Jews in second half of the year after passing of the great Polish general and statesman Pilsudski. No anti-Semite, he nevertheless had to include many ultranationalists in his government.

USA:

Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox paper
"Can Quantum Mechanical Description of Physical Reality be Considered Complete?
Together with his assistant at the Institute for Advanced Studies, Nathan Rosen, and Boris Podolsky Einstein publishes one of the most important works of the second half of his carreer link

Nathan Rosen (later photo) Einstein's Princeton assistant 1934-1936 moved permanently to Israel in 1953. He founded The Institute of Physics at the Technion, Israel's premier technical institute (Einstein was the first President of the original Technion Society)


PALESTINE:

Izz al-Din al-Qassam, killed by British

Izz Al-Din Al-Qassam is killed by British troops.
Enters Palestinian Arab mythology as first to oppose Zionism and British with arms.

Revisionist Zionists split off from World Zionist Organization
Jabotinsky's New Zionist Organization breaks off from the World Zionist Movement in order to promote his program of free enterprise and demanding Britain adhere to the terms of the Mandate: that Jewish settlement be permitted in all of the Palestine Mandate, not just west of the Jordan River.

Einstein quickly condemns Revisionism, praises Socialist Zionism

Einstein: Our Goal is Jewish-Arab Amity
We must support Socialist Zionism,
reject Revisionist Zionism

Histadrut [the Zionist Federation of Labor is]... the most effective check on Revisionism, a movement which seeks to lead our youth astray with phrases borrowed from our worst enemies...

Revisionism is the modern embodiment of those harmful forces which Moses with foresight sought to banish when he formulated his model code of social law.

The secret of our apparently inexhaustible vitality lies in our strong traditions of social justice and of modest service to our immediate community and society as a whole.

The Jews must beware of viewing Palestine merely as a place of refuge.

Passover address to the National Labor Committee for Palestine, reported in NYT, April 21, 1935.

Anti-Zionist group splits off from mainstream Orthodox religious Zionists
They object to Zionism, a secular movement. Disdaining any human intervention to end Jewish exile form the Holy Land, they relying exclusively on miraculous divine intervention to restore Jews to Zion. They call themselves Neturei Karta [Guardians of the City (Jerusalem) and are today sometimes recruited to anti-Israel demonstrations.

Descendant of the 1935 split
A member of virulently anti-Israel Jewish sect Neturei Karta meets with Iranian president at Holocaust deniers conference,Teheran 2006.

To be able to carry out our higher moral mission
we must first keep our Jewish people alive
(this same motivation led Einstein to help raise arms for the Haganah in 1948)

In such times as these consideration for the preservation of Jewry comes first. Today it is our duty to put all available Jewish forces, if possible exclusively, at the disposal of the current relief activities. Particularly essential is to provide help for the upbuilding of Palestine, for this work showed itself in this time of persecution as a refuge and as a moral support unparalled among other organizations, no matter how meretorious they may be.

Without Palestine, the horrors of recent years would have been even more trerrible and the demoralization of the Jewish people far greater. Today, therfore, we should with particular gratitude remember Theodor Herzl and the prophetic visionary insight with which he foresaw the threatening danger in all its magnitude.

United Jewish Appeal fundraising speech reported in NYT, June 27, 1935.

1936

USA

January 30
Einstein aids refugees from Nazis
He sets up fund using writings payment to open bank account for this purpose. He makes executor economist Otto Nathan, his friend, colleague at the Institute for Advanced Study, fellow refugee from Nazism, and his future biographer.

December
Einstein's wife Elsa dies.

POLAND:

Anti-Semitic laws, attacks, drive new wave of Jewish emigration to Palestine

Polish government official collecting special taxes assessed only on Jewish vendors -
photo: Roman Vishniak

1930s shtetl pogroms victim Poland

PALESTINE:

The Arab Revolt (1936-1939)

Helmeted British soldiers charge Arab rioters, Jerusalem, June 1936 (AP photo)

1936 Jaffa riot

April-November

Anti-Jewish riots erupt in Palestine
Four days of anti-Jewish rioting prompted by rumor of Jews had killed two Arabs. Jews murdered near Tulkarm, in Jaffa and on the outskirts of Tel Aviv, probably by a follower of Sheik Qassam.

Arab High Command is formed, Mufti Amin al-Husseini is chosen leader
Prominent Arab leaders overcome rivalries, join forces to protest Zionist advances in Palestine. (It will represent Arab interests in Palestine until 1948).
Their demands:
1. Cessation of Jewish immigration
2. Ban on the sale of land to Jews
3. Arab independence in Palestine.

April
Arab High Command
Mufti Amin al-Husseini is chosen to lead the Arab High Command
(After WWII it will reestablish in Cairo , in mid-1946).

General Arab strike
Economic siege on the yishuv called by Arabs ( forcibly implemented by the shahab - the young guys) .

Jewish settlements, roads are attacked.
Forests, arch symbols of the Zionist project, -are set are set on fire. Jewish-owned orchards are cut down and crops burned (a traditional rural feud tactic).
Einstein sees political manipulation behind the attacks

International Muslim muhajadeen join in the fighting under Commander Fawzi al-Quwakji
Syrian, Fawzi al-Din al-Quwakjii downplays a separate Palestinian Arab national identity,

He regards the locals as one with a pan-Arab nation. Underscoring the position, he claims title: "Supreme Military Commander of the General Arab Revolt in Southern Syria"

Fawzi al-Quwakji salutes his volunteers as they cross into Palestine to fight the British and the Jews

Abed al-Qadir al-Husseini emerges as a rival, nationalist commander
A cousin to the Mufti, he will later be a key commander fighting against Israeli independence

Abed al-Khader al-Husseini (1948 photo)

Arab Revolt fighters

British crack down on Arab Revolt

Strike ends
after 175 days, at urging of surrounding Arab states. The self-destructive tactic devastates Palestinian Arab economy.

THE PEEL COMMISSION

London sends a "Peel Commission"Royal Commission of Inquiry -
at the height of the disturbances to investigate roots of the Arab-Jewish conflict and to propose solutions. Headed by Lord Robert Peel, commission hears testimony.

What would be fair in Palestine? The Peel Commission investigates
His Majesty's representatives arrive

SPAIN:

July
Spanish Civil War -
Einstein co-signs appeal to lift arms embargo against Spanish loyalists.
Insurrection against democratic government is led by Generalissimo Francisco Franco in a fascist takeover that presages WW II. Franco receives support from Nazi Germany and fascist Italy, while US maintained an arms embargo against the Spanish government. Einstein will cosign an appeal by Princeton professors to lift the US arms embargo against the embattled Spanish loyalists so they can beat back the threat. (The campaign is unsuccessful. Franco is victorious and rules Spain as a dictator until his death in 1975. )

1937

BRITAIN: COMPROMISE. SPLIT LAND INTO A JEWISH STATE AND AN ARAB STATE
July 1937
Peel Commission recommends "Partition":  Split Palestine into Arab and Jewish states.
May be necessary to transfer out minority within other's territory.

Report: The Mandate is "unworkable". Partition the territory between the two peoples who each have valid claims to it: Jews due to historical and religious connections, Arabs through 13 centuries of occupation. The states it proposes divide along demographic lines; Jerusalem and a corridor to the sea to remain under British administration

Partition is considered by Jews, rejected by Arabs.

Zionists bitterly debate whether or not to accept, seek clarifications. Palestinian Arabs meet in Syria along with representatives of all Arab states (except Yemen) reject Peel proposal.

1937 Irgun Poster

The Hebrew headline reads "Only Thus"
Original, undivided Mandate area remains Revisionist Zionist goal. Einstein had no such aspirations for Zionism.

July 21, 1937
The Mufti reaches out to Nazi consul in Jerusalem.
Mufti visits Nazi Germany's Consul-General in Jerusalem, Hans Dohle, to repeat offer of support for Hitler if Nazi Germany will support Arabs against the Zionists.  The next day, British police entered the offices of the Supreme Muslim Council to arrest the Mufti.  He evades arrest and claims sanctuary on the Haram (Temple Mount).  Police stay outside the gates of the Haram with orders to arrest the Mufti if he tries to leave.  Mufti stays inside the Haram for several months.

The second stage of the Arab Revolt disturbances begins
Attacks step up against both the yishuv and the British authorities. This time, however, they encounter organized defense.

September 26, 1937
Arabs assassinate British District Commissioner for Galilee,
Yelland Andrews

British crackdown

British Crackdown
Arabs in detention.  Right: A Jaffa resident is stopped and searched

1938

Einstein blames violence on Mufti's incitement
URGES ARAB-JEWISH COOPERATION, OPPOSES JEWISH POLITICAL STATE

British soldier fortification in courtyard of Church of the Nativity
1938 (AP)

The Mufti translates Fascist antisemitic articles, distributes through Muslim schools.
Palestinian Arabs imitated fascist political organizations and praise German racial laws (examples coming)

1938 stamp issued by Palestinian Arab rebels

USA:

April

Surveying the worsening world situation and the violence in Palestine, Einstein addresses a group of left-wing supporters of Zionism:

We Owe a Debt to Zionism
But beware exaggerated nationalism

We meet today because of our concern for the development of Palestine. In this hour one thing, above all, must be emphasized: Judaism owes a great debt of gratitude to Zionism. The Zionist movement has revived among Jews the sense of community. It has performed productive work surpassing all the expectations anyone could entertain. This productive work in Palestine, to which self-sacrificing Jews throughout the world have contributed, has saved a large number of our brethren from direst need. In particular, it has been possible to lead a not inconsiderable part of our youth towards a life of joyous and creative work.

Now the fateful disease of our time -- exaggerated nationalism, borne up by blind hatred -- has brought our working Palestine to a most difficult stage. Fields cultivated by day must have armed protection at night against fanatical Arab outlaws...

The solidarity and confidence with which our brethren in Palestine face these difficulties deserve our admiration... Spirits remain high, in the conviction that reason and calm will ultimately reassert themselves. Everyone knows that the riots are artificially fomented by those directly interested in embarassing not only ourselves but especially England. Everyone knows that banditry would cease if foreign subsidies were withdrawn.

Just one more personal word on the question of partition. I should much rather see reasonable agreement with the Arabs on the basis of living together in peace than the creation of a Jewish state. Apart from pratical consideration, my awareness of the essential nature of Judaism resists the idea of a Jewish state with borders, an army, a measure of temporal power no matter how modest. I am afraid of the inner damage Judaism will sustain - especially from the development of a narrow nationalism within our ranks, which we have already had to fight strongly even without a Jewish state... A return to a nation in the political sense of the word would be equivalent to turning away from the spiritualization of our community which we owe to the genius of our prophets. If external necessity should after all compel us to assume this burden, let us bear it with tact and patience.

From a speech to The National Labor Committee for Palestine delivered at the Commodore Hotel, New York, April 17, 1938. First published in New Palestine (Washington DC) April 28, 1938 and included as "Our Debt to Zionism" in Out of My Later Years, pg 262-264, Greenwood Press, Westport, CN (1950)

EINSTEIN'S OPPOSITION TO PARTITION BRINGS MIXED REACTIONS

Some Zionists approve (US Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis, Rabbi Stephen Wise). Chaim Weizmann writes Einstein an angry response)

Four days after the speech Einstein hears from Arab National League president
in New York, F. I. Shatara,

Fuad Issa Shatara, MD, president of the Arab National League (formerly called Palestine Anti-Zionism Society ), the chief Arab lobbying organization in the US, writes to Einstein that his Zionist vision is compatible with Arab nationalist aspirations. A Jaffa-born Christian Palestinian-American Shatara was a practicing surgeon and intructor of anatomy at the long Island College Hospital. He was confidant of Ameen Rihanai who, like his contemporary Khalil Gibran, was a celebrated poet and Arab nationalist.

Shatara and Einstein meet in Princeton and form a high opinion of one another. Einstein suggests that Jewish and Arab leaders could together devise a reasonable solution to the conflict. (see Sayen, Jamie, Einstein in America, The Scientist's Conscience in the Age of Hitler and Hiroshima, Crown, New York (1985) p.108)

PALESTINE:

September
Mufti Amin al-Husseini meets with Adolph Eichmann, other nazis :
Two SS officers, SS Hauptscharfuehrer Adolph Eichmann and SS Oberscharfuehrer Herbert Hagen meet in Jerusalem with the Grand Mufti. Husseini also receives financial and military assistance and supplies from Nazi Germany and fascist Italy.also meets with Francois Genoud, later known as the "Swiss Banker of the Third Reich", in Jerusalem. Their relationship will continue well into the 1960's. Mufti also trade views on "the Jewish question".

Nazi Germany bankrolls Mufti
Amin Al-Husseini subsequently receives financial and military aid from Nazi Germany.

Mufti Amin al-Husseini eliminates his foes in the Palestinian Opposition Party
They are loyal to the Nashashibi, rather than Husseini clan. Among the anti-Mufti partisans attacked: Isa al-Isa, editor of Filastin, which published Einsetin's 1930 letter calling for cooperation between Zionism and local Arabs.


British-Jewish counterinsurgency suppress Arab attacks
Charles Orde Wingate, a Scottish officer in the British army, pro-Zionist Christian, organizes Special Night Squads of Jewish volunteers to combat the attackers.

British officer Orde Wingate
Organizes British-Jewish anti-terror "Special Night Squads " using tactics of surprise, mobility and stealth. WIngate went on to organize anti-Axis Burmese rebels in WWII.

October 1, 1937
British outlaw Arab Higher Committee. Kill revolt leaders, deport others. Mufti flees.

Mufti in Lebanon, sets up Central Committee for Jihad.

Results of Arab Revolt

Approximately 630 people were killed in the disturbances of 1936-39, some 2,000 were injured and large amounts of Jewish property were damaged. Many Muslim and Christian Palestinian intellectual leaders and clerics assassinated for protesting Husseini's Islamic terror. suicide bombing
It is during the revolt that the distinctive rural headdress, the kaffiyeh - emerges as a symbol of Palestinian Arab violent resistance. (Rural peasants were primary fighters. The Urban elite, generally more conciliatory towards the British, wore the fez. Mandatory veiling of women - even Christians - was also imposed by order of the Mufti. the veil was, surprisingly, and urban custom not generally followed in villages.)


The most ironic outcome of the Arab Revolt:

Jewish development is hastened as Jews are pushed into self reliance. It also furthers development of Jewish military force.

David Ben-Gurion notes in his diary:

"The mufti performed a great service for the Jewish people."

Tom Segev, One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs under the British Mandate Henry Holt (1999) pg 388

George Antonius publishes The Arab Awakening: The Story of the Arab National Movement ( Beirut, Lebanon: Khayat’s College Book Coopeative, 1938

George Antonius
Jerusalem intellectual George Antonious makes case for Arab independence

EVIAN, FRANCE:

July

Conference: No country will accept Jews fleeing Nazis.
Evian Conference ends with no refuge found.

Einstein will cite link the conference's failure in a passionate plea for open Jewish immigration to Palestine

Bentwich, Berenger at Evian Conference
1938

NAZI GERMANY:

November
Kristalnacht

Night of antisemitic terror throughout German Third Reich initiates turning point in Nazi treatment of Jews.

Morning after the "Night of broken Glass"

Synagogue set ablaze

Jewish escapees from Hitler refused refuge, returned to Europe
1938 SS St. Louis  Six months after Kristalnacht 900 Jews flee, refused entry to Cuba, refused to US, sent back to Europe.

1939

Einstein: We must strive for a
just and lasting compromise

There could be no greater calamity than a permanent discord between us and the Arab people. Despite the great wrong that has been done us, we must strive for a just a just and lasting compromise with the Arab people... Let us recall that in former times no people lived in greater friendship with us than the ancestors of these Arabs.

(Hoffman article pg. 242)

USA:

Einstein dedicates Jewish Palestine exhibit at 1939 World's Fair

Einstein Dedicates Zionist Pavilion

...entrusted with the high privilege of officially dedicating the building which my Jewish brethren have erected as their contribution to the world's fair.

(Pais, Einsetin Lived Here pg 216)

1939 World's Fair
Zionists host a Palestine exhibit at 1939 World's Fair.

1939 World's Fair
"Land of Israel" Maurice Ascalon's bas relief :Toiler of the Soil, Laborer and the Scholar celebrates mainstream Zionist-Socialist values

1939 World's Fair
Stepdaughter Margot and American Zionist leader Stephen Wise (right) accompany Einstein to World's Fair

BRITAIN:

With Hitler on the rise, Britain is adamant for quiet in Palestine.
Woodhead Commission declares Peel Partition Plan unworkable. Suggests Jewish-Arab conference to settle the matter:

Britain's last try: The St. James Conference
A meeting to work out a compromise between Arabs and Jews in Palestine came to naught. The Arab delegation (left) refused to meet with representatives of the Jews (right).

Facing a looming war with Germany, Britain is eager to assuage Palestinian Arab resentment. Britain abandons the 1937 partition plan, offers to cap immigration to assure Jews will always be a minority, and promises full independence in ten years, pending Jewish approval. Arab higher Committee is inclined to accept but the Mufti nixes the deal, jealous that his colleagues would lead the nation and he would be frozen out.

Reconciliation fails
Arabs refuse to sit with Jews at convened round table. Britain responds with its last pre-war Mandatory action, the White Paper - issued the day after Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia.:

THE WHITE PAPER

Just as need for refuge grows most urgent, Jewish immigration is to be restricted for five years , then stopped altogether, guaranteeing Jewish minority status.

Furthermore, Jews are to be restricted to buying land only in coastal strip.

May 17 1939 "White Paper"

Henceforth, Britain is Zionism's enemy.
Jewish Agency Chairman David Ben Gurian: "We shall fight Hitler as though there were no White Paper, and fight the White Paper as though there were no Hitler."

Zionists turn to running illegal immigration.

Wading ashore near Tel Aviv
1939 August 22
Illegal Jewish immigrants seeking refuge from the Nazis are arrested by British police and put in detention camps
Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz

PALESTINE:

US experts: Zionist land reclaimation makes room for more Jewish immigrants, despite British claim to contrary
Top US soil expert Walter Clay Lowdermilk argues for, helps plan soil restoration projects. Elwood Mead, chief engineer of Hoover Dam assesses:

"The Zionist movement is in the hands of a group of exceptionally able and enlightened leaders."

Lowdermilk's 1944 popular scientific survey will be cited by Einstein here.

WORLD WAR II 1939-45


EUROPE:

September 1
Nazi Germany invades Poland,
launching WWII.

USA:

August 2, 1939
Einstein: "Extremely powerful bombs of a new type" are possible..
Einstein warns Roosevelt in a letter - and Nazi Germany may be working on them.

ALBERT EINSTEIN'S ZIONISM CONTINUES...


Before Zionism

1879-1899

1900-1909

1910-1919

1920-1929

1930-1939

1940-1949

1950-1955

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.